Causal Dynamical Triangulations

This webpage is dedicated to curating all the papers on Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT), Generalised CDT (GCDT), and Euclidean Dynamical Triangulations (EDT).

♦ EDT was invented by Jan Ambjørn, Jerzy Jurkiewicz, and many others $^\dagger$
♦ CDT was invented by Jan Ambjørn, Renata Loll, and Jerzy Jurkiewicz $^\dagger$
♦ GCDT was invented by Jan Ambjorn, Renata Loll, Willem Westra, and Stefan Zohren $^\dagger$

▞ EDT, CDT, and GCDT are the non-perturbative quantum gravity models. EDT is a precursor to CDT, and causality is the demarcation between them. EDT was started in the 1980s in the context of non-critical bosonic string theory$^\dagger$, and it was initially known in the scientific community as Dynamical Triangulations (DT). It is based on Regge’s coordinate-free approach$^\dagger$ where the continuous manifolds are replaced by piecewise flat simplicial manifolds, with all edge-length fixed to a lattice cut-off such that summing over all possible simplicial manifolds results in background independence. To show the distinctness between CDT, we say EDT instead of DT. But, both names mean the same. CDT is a precursor to GCDT, and relaxation of preferred foliation is the distinction between them. CDT was initially called Lorentzian quantum gravity.

Note that CDT, GCDT, and EDT do not assume that the discreteness they impose is fundamental or physical. Rather it is an approximation technique. But for example, Causal Set Theory and other discrete approaches of quantum gravity assume that it’s physical.

See the Influence Map based on based on the 1998 Ambjorn and Loll paper:
Read the most recent papers on CDT in arXiv.

Open Knowledge Map for CDT Research :)


Jan Ambjørn, Jerzy Jurkiewicz, Renata Loll, Andrzej Görlich, Jakub Gizbert-Studnicki, Dániel Németh, Marcus Reitz, Damodar Rajbhandari, Timothy Budd, Yoshiyuki Watabiki, Zbigniew Drogosz, Nilas Klitgaard, Stefan Zohren, Willem Westra, Hiroyuki Fuji, Samo Jordan, Lisa Glaser, Yuki Sato, Hongguang Zhang, Jack Laiho, Ben Ruijl, Konstantinos N. Anagnostopoulos, Charlotte Floe Kristjansen, Dario Benedetti, Joe Henson, Joshua H. Cooperman, Rajesh Kommu, Steven Carlip, Jonah Miller, Christian Anderson, Patrick R. Zulkowski, Piotr Bialas, Thordur Jonsson, John F. Wheater, Ray Renken, Simon Catterall, Simeon Warner, John B. Kogut, Bergfinnur Durhuus, Annalisa Marzuoli, Mauro Carfora, Bertrand Eynard, Alicia Castro, … yet to be updated.

Note: Contributors are those who published EDT/CDT/GCDT articles in peer-reviewed journals. The order does not signify the higher contributions.

▞ This webpage will keep on updating as I find more papers on this topic. I will also try to keep the list in the suitable group in chronological order (newest first).

Note: The year I will mention before the title is the year the paper was uploaded to arXiv (except theses), and the link will be to the arXiv most recent version of the paper.

Find articles using Ctrl+F on PC, or Command+F on Mac, and search with ?<search-id> where <search-id> can be 2D, 3D, 4D, EDT, CDT, and GCDT.
Access this webpage using
If you want to add your (EDT/CDT/GCDT) article or thesis or name as an (EDT/CDT/GCDT) contributor to this webpage, please contact me at [firstname][AT]


Renormalization Group Flow

Semi-classical Gravity

Quantum Spacetime Properties

Connections to other models




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Published on Apr 19, 2023

Last revised on May 27, 2024